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J Neurochem. 2005 Feb;92(3):546-53.

S100B-induced microglial and neuronal IL-1 expression is mediated by cell type-specific transcription factors.

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Department of Geriatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 629 Jack Stephens Drive #807, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.


Both the astrocytic cytokine S100B and the pro-inflammatory interleukin-1 (IL-1) are elevated in Alzheimer's disease, and each has been implicated in Alzheimer-related neuropathology. We examined the gene-regulatory events through which S100B induces IL-1beta expression. In primary microglia, S100B activated the transcription factors Sp1 and NFkappaB, followed by an increase in IL-1beta mRNA levels. The latter was blocked by a peptide inhibitor of NFkappaB or by a double-stranded oligonucleotide containing a NFkappaB-binding site to serve as "decoy" DNA and reduce available NFkappaB. But in primary cortical neurons, decoy and siRNA experiments indicated that the IL-1beta induction by S100B was mediated by Sp1 without evidence of a role for NFkappaB. Our results suggest that the elevation of S100B and IL-1 in Alzheimer brain and consequent neurodegenerative events are mediated through cell-type specific gene-regulatory events, providing mechanistic insight into connections between glial activation and neuronal dysfunction.

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