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J Neurochem. 2005 Feb;92(3):525-35.

Bi-functional effects of ATP/P2 receptor activation on tumor necrosis factor-alpha release in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated astrocytes.

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1
Research Service, Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 1201 NW 16th Street, Miami, FL 33125, USA.

Abstract

Neuroinflammation is associated with a variety of CNS pathologies. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a major proinflammatory cytokine, as well as extracellular ATP, are increased following various CNS insults. Here we report on the relationship between ATP/P2 purinergic receptor activation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-alpha release from primary cultures of rat cortical astrocytes. Using ELISA, we confirmed that treatment with LPS stimulated the release of TNF-alpha in a concentration and time dependent manner. ATP treatment alone had no effect on TNF-alpha release. LPS-induced TNF-alpha release was attenuated by 1 mm ATP, a concentration known to activate P2X7 receptors. Consistent with this, 3'-O-(4-Benzoyl)benzoyl-ATP (BzATP), a P2X7 receptor agonist, also attenuated LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. This reduction in TNF-alpha release was not due to loss of cell viability. Adenosine and 2-chloroadenosine were ineffective, suggesting that attenuation of LPS-induced TNF-alpha release by ATP was not due to ATP breakdown and subsequent activation of adenosine/P1 receptors. Interestingly, treatment of astrocyte cultures with 10 microm or 100 microm ATP potentiated TNF-alpha release induced by a submaximal concentration of LPS. UTP and 2methylthioADP (2-MeSADP), P2Y receptor agonists, also enhanced this LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Our observations demonstrate opposing effects of ATP/P2 receptor activation on TNF-alpha release, i.e. P2X receptor activation attenuates, whereas P2Y receptor activation potentiates TNF-alpha release in LPS-stimulated astrocytes. These observations suggest a mechanism whereby astrocytes can sense the severity of damage in the CNS via ATP release from damaged cells and can modulate the TNF-alpha mediated inflammatory response depending on the extracellular ATP concentration and corresponding type of astrocyte ATP/P2 receptor activated.

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