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Gene. 2005 Jan 3;344:53-60. Epub 2004 Dec 10.

Isolation and characterization of the human Cdc2L1 gene promoter.

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Department of Pathology, Room 5208, Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724, United States.


CDK11 (cyclin-dependent kinase 11, formerly known as PITSLRE) is a member of the p34cdc2-related kinases. It has been previously shown to be involved in a variety of different cellular processes including RNA processing, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. It is encoded by two different but highly similar genes, Cdc2L1 (cell division control 2 like 1) and Cdc2L2 (cell division control 2 like 2). Previous studies from our group identified and characterized the transcriptional regulation of the human Cdc2L2 gene promoter. The current studies identify and characterize the Cdc2L1 gene promoter. We cloned the promoter and elucidated the different transcriptional regulatory elements that reside within the 5' region of the gene. Deletion analysis of the promoter showed a region of nucleotides -152 to +11 to be necessary for basal transcription of the Cdc2L1 gene. Sequencing analysis found this region of the promoter to be highly GC-rich but is lacking both TATA and CAAT boxes. There are several different transcription factor binding sites that are consensus or near consensus found within this region. The potential binding sites include two Ets-1 sites, one Skn-1 site, and one E2F-1 site. Transfection studies of various site-directed mutagenesis clones for these different sites revealed that both Ets-1 sites play critical roles in sustained transcriptional activity as well as Skn-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of the endogenous promoter with Ets-1 and Skn-1 verified an in vivo association of Ets-1 and Skn-1 transcription factors with the endogenous promoter. These results, in addition to our Cdc2L2 results, lead to the further comprehension of the fundamental mechanisms dictating CDK11 gene expression through the Cdc2L1 gene promoter.

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