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Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 May;288(5):H2253-9. Epub 2005 Jan 14.

In vivo adenosine receptor preconditioning reduces myocardial infarct size via subcellular ERK signaling.

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Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky 40536-0298, USA.


The protective effects of adenosine receptor acute preconditioning (PC) are well known; however, the signaling mechanism mediating this effect has not been determined in in vivo models. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in mediating adenosine PC in in vivo rat myocardium. Open-chest rats were submitted to 25 min of coronary artery occlusion and 2 h of reperfusion. ERK activation was assessed by measuring total and dually phosphorylated p44/42 ERK isoforms in nuclear and/or myofilament, mitochondrial, cytosolic, and membrane fractions. Adenosine receptor PC with the A1/A2a agonist 1S-[1a,2b,3b,4a(S*)]-4-[7-[[2-(3-chloro-2-thienyl)-1-methylpropyl]amino]-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridyl-3-yl]cyclopentane carboxamide (AMP-579) reduced infarct size from 49 +/- 3% to 29 +/- 3%, an effect that was blocked by the mitogen-activated protein kinase-ERK inhibitor U-0126. ERK isoforms were present in all fractions, with the greatest expression in the cytosolic fraction and the least in the mitochondrial fraction. AMP-579 treatment increased preischemic p44/42 ERK phosphorylation in all fractions 2.7- to 6.9-fold. Reperfusion increased ERK isoform activation in all fractions, but there were no differences between control and AMP-579 hearts. Preischemic increases in phospo-p44/p42 ERK with AMP-579 were blunted by U-0126, although only in mitochondrial and membrane compartments. The PC effects of AMP-579 on infarct size and ERK were blunted by both the A1 antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine and, surprisingly, the A2a antagonist ZM-241385. These results indicate that the unique adenosine receptor agonist AMP-579 exerts its beneficial effects in vivo via both A1 and A2a receptor modulation of subcellular ERK isoform signaling.

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