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Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Mar;99(3):207-14.

Campylobacter species and drug resistance in a north Indian rural community.

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Department of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014, India.


Campylobacter species are known as agents of enteritis worldwide. However, rural community-based studies on Campylobacter infections are lacking. We carried out a prospective case-control study from July to December 2002 to investigate the prevalence and socio-epidemiological determinants of Campylobacter infection in a rural community in north India and the drug resistance of Campylobacter strains isolated from the community. Stool specimens from 348 subjects with diarrhoea and 351 age- and gender-matched asymptomatic controls were cultured for Campylobacter, Salmonella and Shigella. All Campylobacter strains were identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Campylobacter species were isolated from 47 (13.5%) subjects with diarrhoea and 2 (0.6%) asymptomatic controls respectively (P<0.001). Campylobacter infection was significantly higher in children aged less than 5 years, families engaged in agriculture and persons who did not wash their hands with soap after peri-anal washing following defaecation. Campylobacter infections were more frequent than combined Salmonella and Shigella infections (47/348 vs. 15/351; P<0.001) in subjects with diarrhoea. Only two Campylobacter-infected individuals with diarrhoea had bloody stools. Antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter species was as follows: ampicillin 81.6%, ciprofloxacin 71.4%, tetracycline 26.5%, furazolidine 14.3%, gentamicin 10.2% and erythromycin 6.1%; 30.6% of strains were multidrug resistant. Increased quinolone resistance and multidrug resistance pose major risks for treatment failure.

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