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Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2004 Nov;44(11):914-7.

[Differential diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke and management on the basis of acute ischemic stroke subtype].

[Article in Japanese]

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Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine.


Recent advances in neuro-imaging technology assist early clinical diagnosis for ischemic stroke subtype. The precise early diagnosis for stroke subtype plays an important role for the management in patients with acute cerebral infarction. The differential diagnosis is made according to the algorithm in the modified the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification, with reference to the results of diffusion-weighted MRI and MRA. Artery-to-artery embolism and branch atheromatus disease are diagnosed as atherothrombotic infarction according to this algorithm. Thrombolytic therapy is recommended in cardioembolic stroke within 3 hours after onset. The anticoagulant therapy with heparin is often used to prevent the recurrence for thrombosis in acute cardioemboic infarction. The selective thrombin inhibitor has recently been used in the treatment of acute atherothrombotic infarction. The antiplatelet therapy with aspirin is recommended in acute atherothrombotic infarction and lacunar infarction. The sodium ozagrel is recommended in the treatment of acute lacunar infarction. The treatment of acute ischemic stroke should be managed according to Japanese Guidelines for the management of stroke (2004).

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