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Pharm Res. 2004 Dec;21(12):2279-92.

Area/moment and compartmental modeling of pharmacokinetics during pregnancy: applications to maternal/fetal exposures to corticosteroids in sheep and rats.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The pharmacokinetics of corticosteroids in pregnancy were analyzed to assess maternal/fetal disposition and factors controlling fetal exposure. Area/Moment equations and compartmental models for estimating pharmacokinetic parameters from single dose data during pregnancy were developed.

METHODS:

Betamethasone in the maternal/fetal circulations of sheep was measured by HPLC after maternal intramuscular injection (n = 4) of 170 microg kg(-1) of a depot formulation. Additional data for beta-methasone in sheep and dexamethasone pharmacokinetics in rats were obtained from the literature. Area/Moment equations were derived using mass balance concepts, statistical moments, and Laplace theory. Area/Moment analysis, compartmental modeling, and allometric scaling to man for betamethasone were performed using WinNonlin and ADAPT II programs.

RESULTS:

Polyexponential maternal/fetal profiles for corticosteroids were observed. Clearance terms for corticosteroid transfer from fetus to mother were 4-fold higher than the clearance term for transfer in the opposite direction. A placental efflux process may restrict fetal access of corticosteroids which are known PGP substrates. The elimination clearance estimates indicate that fetal metabolism plays a minor role in corticosteroid elimination.

CONCLUSIONS:

Generalized and specific models for maternal/fetal pharmacokinetics were developed. An efflux transport mechanism, such as the known placental expression of PGP, could explain the limited fetal exposure of corticosteroids.

PMID:
15648260
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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