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Haematologica. 2005 Jan;90(1):45-53.

Analysis of risk factors for myelodysplasias, leukemias and death from infection among patients with congenital neutropenia. Experience of the French Severe Chronic Neutropenia Study Group.

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1
Service d'Hémato-Oncologie Pédiatrique, Hôpital Trousseau, Paris, France. jean.donadieu@trs.ap-hop-paris.fr

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

The two main complications of severe chronic neutropenia are fatal sepsis and myelodysplasia/acute leukemia (MDS/AL). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy has significantly reduced the frequency and severity of infections, but its possible influence on the risk of malignancy is not known.

DESIGN AND METHODS:

The French Severe Chronic Neutropenia (SCN) Registry has prospectively collected data since 1994 on 231 patients with various forms of SCN, namely severe congenital neutropenia (n=101), cyclic neutropenia (n=60), glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSDIb) (n=15) and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS)(n=55). The median overall follow-up is 11.1 years. Parameters of exposure to G-CSF therapy, such as the time averaged dose, follow up after first use of G-CSF, and the cumulative dose, have been recorded.

RESULTS:

Eight septic deaths occurred, of which 6 among patients with severe congenital neutropenia and 2 in patients with cyclic neutropenia; none of these 8 patients was receiving G-CSF therapy. No septic deaths occurred during G-CSF therapy. Thirteen cases of MDS/AL were recorded. The cumulative incidence of MDS/AL was 2.7% (SD 1.3%) at 10 years and 8.1% (SD 2.7%) at 20 years.

INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS:

Risk factors for MDS/AL were the diagnostic category, the severity of neutropenia, younger age at diagnosis, and strong exposure to G-CSF. MDS/AL only occurred in patients with severe congenital neutropenia and SDS. Owing to their particular susceptibility to infections, patients with severe congenital neutropenia had the strongest exposure to G-CSF; the risk of leukemia increased with the degree of G-CSF exposure in this subgroup.

PMID:
15642668
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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