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Arthritis Res Ther. 2005;7(1):12-9. Epub 2004 Nov 30.

Toll-like receptor downstream signaling.

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ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Osaka, Japan.


The family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) senses conserved structures found in a broad range of pathogens, causing innate immune responses that include the production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and interferons. The signal transduction is initiated from the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain of TLRs after pathogen recognition. Almost all TLRs use a TIR-containing adapter MyD88 to activate a common signaling pathway that results in the activation of NF-kappaB to express cytokine genes relevant to inflammation. Recently, three further TIR-containing adapters have been identified and shown to selectively interact with several TLRs. In particular, activation of the TRIF-dependent pathway confers antiviral responses by inducing anti-viral genes including that encoding interferon-beta. Taken together, these results indicate that the interaction between individual TLRs and the different combinations of adapters directs appropriate responses against distinct pathogens.

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