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Med Vet Entomol. 2004 Dec;18(4):449-52.

Toward development of neem-based repellents against the Scottish Highland biting midge Culicoides impunctatus.

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1
Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Roslin, Midlothian, UK. alison.blackwell@ed.ac.uk

Abstract

Oil of neem, from the tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae), was evaluated for repellent and antifeedant activity against Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), by three complementary methods with serial dilutions. Electroantennograms revealed the sensitivity of Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) females to neem > or = 0.10%. Culicoides impunctatus Goetghebuer females were repelled by > or = 1% in a Y-tube olfactometer, Using a membrane feeder for wild-caught parous females of C. impunctatus, the proportion blood-feeding was significantly reduced by topical applications of neem oil > or = 0.10% concentrations, with blood-feeding completely prevented by > or =1%. On the basis of these response data, we developed 2% neem-based formulations for personal protection against biting midges.

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