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Med Vet Entomol. 2004 Dec;18(4):449-52.

Toward development of neem-based repellents against the Scottish Highland biting midge Culicoides impunctatus.

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Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Roslin, Midlothian, UK.


Oil of neem, from the tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae), was evaluated for repellent and antifeedant activity against Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), by three complementary methods with serial dilutions. Electroantennograms revealed the sensitivity of Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) females to neem > or = 0.10%. Culicoides impunctatus Goetghebuer females were repelled by > or = 1% in a Y-tube olfactometer, Using a membrane feeder for wild-caught parous females of C. impunctatus, the proportion blood-feeding was significantly reduced by topical applications of neem oil > or = 0.10% concentrations, with blood-feeding completely prevented by > or =1%. On the basis of these response data, we developed 2% neem-based formulations for personal protection against biting midges.

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