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Gastroenterology. 2005 Jan;128(1):175-91.

Gastrointestinal hormones and food intake.

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1
Genome Research Institute, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, 2170 E. Galbraith Road, Cincinnati, OH 45237, USA.

Abstract

Despite dramatic fluctuations in calorie intake, animals maintain a very stable body weight. The reason is that energy intake and expenditure are precisely matched. Long-term regulation of energy balance is dependent on the coordination and interpretation of signals such as those given by insulin and leptin indicating sufficient long-term energy stores as well as short-term, meal-related signals such as those given by cholecystokinin (CCK). Within the last 30 years, our knowledge of short-term signals has increased dramatically. Throughout the cephalo-caudal axis of the gastrointestinal system, discrete enteroendocrine cells respond to both mechanical and chemical stimulation. Meal-associated hormone release is dependent on the concentration and composition of the nutrients ingested. Released signals are transmitted neurally through vagal afferents or humorally as circulating ligands for specific receptor populations in the periphery and central nervous system. These signals are interpreted by the CNS and manifested as a behavioral modification of feeding. This review will present past and recent literature in support of gut hormones and their roles as mediators of satiety. Evidence from pharmacologic and physiologic studies involving both humans and rodents will be presented, along with a short section outlining the knowledge gained through the use of murine knockout models. Last, the contribution of satiety hormones as likely mediators of the effectiveness seen following obesity surgery will be reviewed. Although traditionally thought of as short-term, meal-related signals, enhanced, chronic hormone secretion and signaling resulting from gut reconstruction as seen with gastric bypass surgery most likely contributes to the superior efficacy of surgery as a treatment for obesity.

PMID:
15633135
DOI:
10.1053/j.gastro.2004.10.043
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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