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Am J Pathol. 2005 Jan;166(1):135-46.

Lymphotoxin plays a crucial role in the development and function of nasal-associated lymphoid tissue through regulation of chemokines and peripheral node addressin.

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Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 60 College St., P.O. Box 208034, New Haven, CT 06520-8034, USA.


The mechanism of nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) development is incompletely understood with regard to the roles of cytokines, chemokines, and vascular addressins. Development of the wild-type NALT continued in the immediate postnatal period with gradual increases in cellularity, compartmentalization into T- and B-cell zones, and expression of lymphotoxin (LT)-alpha, LT-beta, and lymphoid chemokines (CCL21, CCL19, CXCL13). High endothelial venules (HEVs) developed that expressed GlyCAM-1, HEC-6ST [an enzyme crucial for expression of luminal peripheral node addressin (PNAd)], and PNAd itself. LT-beta(-/-) and LT-alpha(-/-) NALTs had fewer cells than those of wild-type mice, reduced (LT-beta(-/-)) or absent (LT-alpha(-/-)) lymphoid chemokines, and no T- and B-cell compartmentalization. LT-beta(-/-) HEVs expressed only abluminal PNAd and no HEC-6ST or GlyCAM-1. LT-alpha(-/-) HEVs had no PNAd, HEC-6ST, or GlyCAM-1. Because intranasal immunization gives rise to vaginal IgA, immunization of LT-beta(-/-) mice, which retain cervical lymph nodes, might generate such a response. Intranasal immunization with ovalbumin and cholera toxin revealed lower cytokine levels in the LT-alpha(-/-) and LT-beta(-/-) NALTs, and undetectable vaginal IgA. In contrast, splenic cytokines and serum IgG titers, although reduced, were detectable. These data indicate that LT-alpha(3) and LT-alpha(1)beta(2) cooperatively contribute to NALT development and function through regulation of lymphoid chemokines and adhesion molecules; they are the first to implicate LT-alpha(1)beta(2) in GlyCAM-1 regulation in NALT HEV development.

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