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IEEE Trans Nanobioscience. 2004 Dec;3(4):237-42.

Simultaneous imaging of different focal planes in fluorescence microscopy for the study of cellular dynamics in three dimensions.

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  • 1Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083-0688, USA.


The imaging of cellular dynamics in three dimensions using a standard microscope is severely limited due to the fact that only one focal plane can be imaged at a given point in time. Here we present a modification of the classical microscope design with which two or more focal planes can be imaged simultaneously. This is achieved by a modification of the emission pathway of a standard microscope. The efficacy of the design is shown by imaging bead samples and an FcRn-green fluorescent protein expressing tubule that leaves a sorting endosome and subsequently exocytoses at the plasma membrane.

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