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Nat Rev Immunol. 2005 Jan;5(1):43-57.

Protein tyrosine phosphatases and the immune response.

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Program of Inflammation, Inflammatory and Infectious Disease Center, and Program of Signal Transduction, Cancer Center, The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.


Reversible tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins is a key regulatory mechanism for numerous important aspects of eukaryotic physiology and is catalysed by kinases and phosphatases. Together, cells of the immune system express at least half of the 107 protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) genes in the human genome, most of which encode multidomain proteins that contain protein- and phospholipid-interaction domains. Here, we discuss the diverse but specific, and important, roles that PTPs have in immune cells, focusing mainly on T and B cells, and we highlight recent evidence that even subtle alterations in PTPs can cause immune dysfunction and human disease.

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