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Biofactors. 2004;21(1-4):361-5.

Effects of phenolics in Empire apples on hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication.

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  • 1Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.

Erratum in

  • Biofactors. 2005;23(1):58.


The present study investigated antioxidant and antitumor-promoting activities of major phenolic phytochemicals of apples. The contents of each antioxidant in Empire apples was quantified and their contributions to total antioxidant activity of apples were determined using assay for inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced superoxide radical generation in cell culture model and expressed in vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC). The estimated contribution of major phenolics and vitamin C to total anitoxidant capacity of 100 g fresh Empire apples is as follows: quercetin (60.05 VCEAC) > chlorogenic acid (12.32) > phloretin (7.41) > procyanidin B2 (7.22) > vitamin C (6.61) > epicatechin (5.10) in superoxide radical scavenging assay. Recent reports suggest that the mechanism of carcinogenic process of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) may be associated with the inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), which is involved in tumor promotion process. Apple extracts showed the protective effects against the inhibition of GJIC by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. Quercetin exerted the strongest protective effects among major antioxidants in apples on H2O2-induced inhibition of GJIC, following epicatechin, procyanidin B2, and vitamin C, while chlorogenic acid and phloretin had no effects. Our results indicate that cancer chemopreventive activity of apples is associated with the combined antioxidant capacity and antitumor-promoting activities of diverse antioxidants.

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