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Surv Ophthalmol. 2005 Jan-Feb;50(1):3-13.

Systemic and intraocular manifestations of West Nile virus infection.

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  • 1Department of Ophthalmology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.


Since the introduction of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere in 1999, the incidence of human infection has increased dramatically. As this virus spreads westward across the United States, ophthalmologists should be aware of this presently uncommon but important condition. Systemic features of West Nile virus infection are well characterized; however, the ophthalmic presentations are not widely known. Intraocular involvement with West Nile virus infection was first described in February 2003, and a variety of ophthalmic manifestations have since been recognized. A complete survey of the systemic and intraocular manifestations of West Nile virus infection relevant to the ophthalmologist is presented.

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