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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005 Jan;67(1):70-7.

Effects of smoking, alcohol, exercise, education, and family history on the metabolic syndrome as defined by the ATP III.

Author information

1
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, # 108 Pyung-Dong, Jongro-Gu, Seoul 110-746, Republic of Korea. drlwy@samsung.co.kr

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Although several environmental factors are known to have diverse effects on the development of the metabolic syndrome, few studies have examined their relevance to Asians.

METHODS:

We gathered data from 4341 subjects on smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, family history and education level by a self-administered questionnaire. The components of the metabolic syndrome as defined by the ATP III report were examined.

RESULTS:

The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of hypertriglyceridemia was 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.8) and of low HDL-C was 1.9 (95% CI 1.3-2.6) in subjects who smoked more than 20 pack-years compared to nonsmokers. The relative risk of developing the metabolic syndrome in smokers (more than 20 pack-years) was 1.9 (95% CI 1.1-3.7) compared to nonsmokers. Alcohol consumption had a protective effect against low HDL-C (adjusted OR 0.6-0.2). The relative risk of the metabolic syndrome was 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.8) for lack of exercise, 1.5 (95% CI 1.1-2.1) for a positive family history and 2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.4) in those with no or an elementary school education versus university graduation.

CONCLUSION:

Since subjects with a low education level and a family history had an elevated risk for the metabolic syndrome and thus for developing cardiovascular disease, particular attention should be paid to these subjects.

PMID:
15620436
DOI:
10.1016/j.diabres.2004.05.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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