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J Infect Chemother. 2004 Dec;10(6):359-63.

A 3-year prospective study of a urinary antigen-detection test for Streptococcus pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumonia: utility and clinical impact on the reported etiology.

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Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kurashiki Central Hospital, 1-1-1 Miwa, Kurashiki, Okayama 710-8602, Japan.


To evaluate the efficacy of a rapid immunochromatographic membrane test (ICT) for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary antigen for diagnosing S. pneumoniae pneumonia, ICT was performed with urine samples using the Binax NOW Streptococcus pneumoniae kit at the time of admission. The results were compared with those from conventional microbiological studies. Three hundred and forty-nine adult patients with CAP who were admitted to the hospital were studied prospectively between February 2001 and January 2004. The ICT test was positive in 115 (33.0%) of 349 patients enrolled into the study and in 63 (75.9%) of 83 patients with pneumococcal pneumonia confirmed by conventional methods. The test revealed a sensitivity of 75.9% and a specificity of 94.0% with conventional microbiological criteria used as the reference standard. The positive predictive value was 91.3%, and the negative predictive value was 82.6%. The clinical features of 53 patients in whom ICT was positive and no pathogen was identified showed no significant difference from those of 83 patients who had pneumococcal pneumonia identified by conventional methods. The diagnostic yield of pneumococcal pneumonia was increased up to 38.9% using ICT combined with conventional methods. The Binax NOW ICT to detect S. pneumoniae urinary antigen is therefore a rapid and useful method for diagnosing pneumococcal pneumonia. Induction of ICT will prove the predominance of S. pneumoniae in the etiology of CAP.

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