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J Occup Health. 2004 Nov;46(6):470-80.

Relationships of working conditions and individual characteristics to occupational injuries: a case-control study in coal miners.

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Department of Mining Engineering, National Institute of Technology, India.


This study assessed the relationship of age, poor perception of working condition, poor safety environment, poor management and supervision, risk-taking behavior, emotional instability, negative job involvement, job dissatisfaction, job stress, and poor safety performance of workers to occupational injuries. This case-control study was conducted on 202 male coal miners with at least one occupational injury during a five-year period and 202 male controls with no occupational injury, matched on the job. A standardized questionnaire administered by individual interviewers was used. Data were analysed by the logistic regression method. For all workers combined, the factors with significant adjusted odds ratios (ORs) found were: 30-45 and >45 yr age groups (OR vs. <30 yr age group: 1.80, 95% CI 1.02-3.17 and 2.59, 1.38-4.85 respectively), poor perception of working conditions (1.61, CI 1.00-3.18), emotional instability (2.33, 1.04-5.22), job stress (1.83, 1.00-3.46) and poor safety performance of workers (3.10, 1.45-6.63). No significant interaction was found between these risk factors and the job. It was concluded that older age, poor perception of work conditions, poor work environment, and human behavioral factors played significant roles in occupational injuries. This information would help in implementing preventive programs to improve working conditions and management quality and to help the workers to develop positive psychological traits, but workers with negative traits such as emotional instability and older workers should be employed in less demanding jobs.

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