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J Clin Oncol. 2005 Feb 1;23(4):720-31. Epub 2004 Dec 21.

Phase I study of sequential vaccinations with fowlpox-CEA(6D)-TRICOM alone and sequentially with vaccinia-CEA(6D)-TRICOM, with and without granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in patients with carcinoembryonic antigen-expressing carcinomas.

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Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3800 Reservoir Rd, NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA.



Our previous clinical experience with vaccinia and replication-defective avipox recombinant carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) vaccines has demonstrated safety and clinical activity with a correlation between CEA-specific immune response and survival. Preclinical evidence demonstrated that the addition of the transgenes for three T-cell costimulatory molecules (B7-1, ICAM-1, LFA-3, designated TRICOM) results in a significant improvement in antigen-specific T-cell responses and antitumor activity. We describe here the first trial in humans of the CEA-TRICOM vaccines (also including an enhancer agonist epitope within the CEA gene).


Fifty-eight patients with advanced CEA-expressing cancers were accrued to eight cohorts that involved vaccinations with the following: replication-defective fowlpox recombinant (rF)-CEA(6D)-TRICOM; primary vaccination with recombinant vaccinia (rV)-CEA(6D)-TRICOM plus rF-CEA(6D)-TRICOM booster vaccinations; and rV-CEA(6D)-TRICOM and then rF-CEA(6D)-TRICOM, plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with vaccines, or with divided doses of vaccine with GM-CSF. Vaccines were administered every 28 days for six doses and then once every 3 months. Reverting to treatments every 28 days was allowed if patients progressed on the 3-month schedule.


In this phase I study, no significant toxicity was observed. Twenty-three patients (40%) had stable disease for at least 4 months, with 14 of these patients having prolonged stable disease (> 6 months). Eleven patients had decreasing or stable serum CEA, and one patient had a pathologic complete response. Enhanced CEA-specific T-cell responses were observed in the majority of patients tested.


We demonstrated that the CEA-TRICOM vaccines are safe and can generate significant CEA-specific immune responses, and they seem to have clinical benefit in some patients with advanced cancer.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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