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Sex Transm Dis. 2004 Dec;31(12):702-8.

Fluoroquinolone resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Hawaii, 1990-2000: role of foreign importation and increasing endemic spread.

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Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Hawaii Department of Health, Honolulu, Hawaii.



In 1999, an increase in ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates was identified in Hawaii, prompting initiation of investigative studies.


The goal of this study was epidemiologic evaluation of this increase.


The authors conducted a review of laboratory data; case-series and case-control studies based on medical record review; and a prospective case-control study based on patient interviews.


A total of 10.4% (21 of 201) of gonococcal isolates from Hawaii in 2000 were ciprofloxacin-resistant compared with <1.5% per year from 1990 to 1997. From medical record review for patients diagnosed with ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae infection from 1990 to 1999, 59% were Asian/Pacific Islanders and 91% were heterosexual. From review of 1998 and 1999 sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic medical records, patients with ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae were more likely to report recent foreign travel or a sex partner with recent foreign travel than patients with ciprofloxacin-susceptible N. gonorrhoeae (6 of 12 vs. 10 of 117, P <0.001), but 50% (6 of 12) acquired a ciprofloxacin-resistant strain locally from a partner with no recent travel. In 2000, 70% (7 of 10) of STD clinic patients with ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae acquired their infection locally from partners with no reported recent travel.


Infections with ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae are increasing and evolving in Hawaii.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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