Send to

Choose Destination
Chem Biol Interact. 2004 Dec 30;151(1):21-32.

Estradiol metabolites as isoform-specific inhibitors of human glutathione S-transferases.

Author information

Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105-6099, USA.


Numerous studies have suggested that the lifetime dose of unopposed estrogen is a significant risk factor for breast and uterine cancer. Estradiol (E2) plays a putative role as a tumor promoter through interaction with estrogen receptors but can also be metabolized to redox active and/or mutagenic semiquinones and quinones. Similarly, equine estrogens (components of certain hormone replacement therapy preparations) are converted to quinone metabolites. The use of hormone replacement therapy has also been associated with increased breast and endometrial cancer risk. Recently, metabolites of certain equine estrogens have been shown to inhibit human glutathione S-transferases (hGSTs). Since E2 and equine estrogens share similarities in other biological interactions, we have investigated the inhibitory capacity of endogenously formed E2 metabolites toward various hGSTs. The quinone metabolite of 2-hydroxy-17-beta-estradiol (2-OH-E2) was synthesized, and inhibition of hGST-mediated biotransformation of model substrates was assessed. Inhibition of purified recombinant hGSTM1-1 and hGSTA1-1 occurred in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50-values of approximately 250 and 350 nM, respectively. hGSTs M2-2, P1-1 and T1-1 were significantly less sensitive to inhibition. Specific glutathione-conjugates of the estrogen quinone also potently inhibited hGSTM1-1 and hGSTA1-1. Mass spectrometry data indicate that the inhibition was not mediated via covalent adduction. Although we have demonstrated hGST inhibition via E2 metabolites, our findings indicate that the isoform specificity and potency of GST inhibition by endogenous E2 metabolites is different than that of equine estrogen metabolites.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center