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Contrib Nephrol. 2005;147:149-60.

Pharmacological treatment of acute and chronic hyperuricemia in kidney diseased patients.

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1
Department of Medicine and Pharmacology, Division of Nephrology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Abstract

Several trials argued the possibility that hyperuricemia may have a direct effect on cardiovascular and renal disease. It has been shown that an elevated serum uric acid concentration is a predictor of cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction. It also predicts the development of hypertension and in hypertensive patients, hyperuricemia is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Hyperuricemia is a complication often seen in patients with chronic and acute renal disease. The relationship between serum uric acid level and the appearance or progression of renal dysfunction has been debated in the last years. During chemotherapy for hematological malignancies or more rarely for solid tumors, acute renal failure, secondary to a sudden marked increase in uric acid, is not such a rare complication. The therapeutic intervention includes hyper hydration, urinary alkalinization, and the use of uric acid decreasing agents such as allopurinol and rasburicase, a recent recombinant-urate oxidase. In our personal experience, patients with acute renal failure due to hyperuricemia, showed a better renal prognosis with rasburicase than allopurinol. Chronic hyperuricemia is also associated with chronic tubulo-interstitial disease with glomerular sclerosis, and renal dysfunction. Experimental trials showed that uric acid can affect kidneys through different mechanisms at glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and vascular level. Although allopurinol is often the drug of choice, caution must be used to avoid serious side effects. New therapeutic options, for treating hyperuricemia are needed in patients with renal dysfunction for slowing the progression to end stage kidney disease.

PMID:
15604614
DOI:
10.1159/000082552
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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