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Hum Immunol. 2004 Dec;65(12):1443-50.

Different HLA-DR-DQ and MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA) genotypes in autoimmune and nonautoimmune gestational diabetes in a Swedish population.

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Diabetes Laboratory, Institution of Medicine, Lund University, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.


The genetic susceptibility for gestational diabetes (GDM) was estimated by comparisons of genotypes within human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) in 199 women with GDM and 213 healthy women. At least one of ICA, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies, or islet cell antigen-2 antibodies/tyrosine phosphatase antibodies was found in 6.0% (12/199) of women with GDM and were considered as autoimmune GDM, whereas the remaining 187 were considered as nonautoimmune GDM. HLA genotyping was done with polymerase chain reaction and sequence-specific oligonucleotides. MICA polymorphism was determined with polymerase chain reaction and fragment size determination. HLA-DR3-DQ2/x or DR4-DQ8/x and MICA5.0/5.1 were more frequent in autoimmune GDM compared with controls; 92% versus 46% and 42% versus 13% and conferred increased risk (odds ratio [OR] = 13; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-104) and (OR = 4.7; 95%CI 1.4-16). Four other genotypes were more frequent in nonautoimmune GDM compared with controls: HLA-DR7-DQ2/y, 24% versus 14%; DR9-DQ9/y, 9.6% versus 1.9%; DR14-DQ5/y, 7.5% versus 0.94%; and MICA5.0/z, 24% versus 13% and gave increased risk: OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.4, OR = 5.6; 95%CI 1.8-17, OR = 8.5; 95%CI 1.9-38, and OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.4, respectively. We concluded that autoimmune diabetes with onset during pregnancy is associated with the type 1 diabetes-associated genotypes and also with MICA5.0/5.1, whereas DR7-DQ2/y, DR9-DQ9/y, DR14-DQ5/y, and MICA5.0/z are risk factors for nonautoimmune GDM.

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