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Z Kardiol. 2004 Dec;93(12):954-63.

Influence of gender on treatment and short-term mortality of patients with acute myocardial infarction in Berlin.

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Universitätsklinikum Charité, Campus Mitte, Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Kardiologie, Angiologie, Pneumologie, Schumannstr. 20/21, 10117 Berlin, Germany.



Previous studies have shown higher hospital mortality rates in women, especially younger women, than in men. In light of the fact that myocardial infarction therapy is rapidly developing, and since gender-specific aspects have been discussed in detail during recent years, it was our goal to re-evaluate factors influencing hospital mortality rate, especially those involving gender-specific differences, in the city of Berlin, Germany.


We prospectively collected data from 5133 patients (3330 men and 1803 women) with acute myocardial infarction who were treated in 25 hospitals in Berlin during the years 1999 to 2002.


During hospitalization the overall mortality rate was 18.6% among women and 8.4% among men. Women were older (mean age for men 62 years; women 73 years) and less likely to be married (men 74.6%; women 36.9%) than men. Women generally took longer to arrive at the hospital after infarction than did men (median time: men 2.0 h; women 2.6 h). Women furthermore demonstrated a higher proportion of diabetes (men 22.8%; women 36.5%) and hypertension (men 58.0%; women 69.3%). Reperfusion therapy (men 68.8%; women 49.7%) and administration of beta-blockers (men 76.0%; women 66.0%) took place less often for women than for men. A multivariate analysis revealed the following factors to be independent predictors of hospital mortality: age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, pre-existing heart failure, pre-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cardiogenic shock and pulmonary congestion on admission, admission to a hospital with >600 beds, ST-elevation in the initial ECG, reperfusion therapy, as well as beta-blocker and ACE inhibitor treatment within 48 h of hospitalization.


Even after adjustment in multivariate analysis, women with acute myocardial infarction still demonstrate a higher risk for in-hospital death than men.

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