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J Pediatr Orthop B. 2004 Nov;13(6):367-70.

Smoking and socio-economic status in the etiology and severity of Legg-Calvé-Perthes' disease.

Author information

1
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA. gordone@msnotes.wustl.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The etiology of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is poorly understood. An association has been found in the past between Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and smoking as well as low socio-economic status.

METHODS:

A prospective study was carried out in which families with a child diagnosed with Legg-Calvé-Perthes' disease were interviewed about the presence and duration of household second-hand smoke exposure to children. A control group of randomly selected families seen at our institution were interviewed with identical questions. The radiographs of children with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease were reviewed and classified according to the Herring lateral pillar classification system.

RESULTS:

Thirty-eight of the 60 patients (63.3%) with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease were noted to have at least one smoker living in the child's household with a mean of 1.03 smoker-years per year of life exposure to smoke. The median income of the patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease was USD 20,300. The median income of the patients in the control group was USD 17,000. Thirty-eight of the 96 control patients (39.6%) were noted to have at least one smoker living in the child's household with a mean of 0.48 smoker-years per year of life. A significant association was noted between living with a smoker and Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease as well as between increasing smoke exposure and increased risk of developing Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. No significant association was noted between lower income and Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. There was no association between increased smoke exposure and increased severity of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease as measured by the lateral pillar classification.

CONCLUSIONS:

The presence of second-hand smoke seems to be a significant risk factor in the development of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. The presence of second-hand smoke may represent the 'unknown industrial factor' that has been discussed.

PMID:
15599226
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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