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J Biol Chem. 2005 Mar 4;280(9):8143-9. Epub 2004 Dec 14.

Differential pattern of expression and sugar regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase-encoding genes.

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Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y Fotosíntesis and Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas, Universidad de Sevilla-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Américo Vespucio 49, 41092, Seville, Spain.


ADP-glucose pyrophoshorylase (ADP-Glc PPase) catalyzes the first and limiting step in starch biosynthesis. In plants, the enzyme is composed of two types of subunits (small and large) and is allosterically regulated by 3-phosphoglycerate and phosphate. The pattern of expression and sugar regulation of the six Arabidopsis thaliana ADP-Glc PPase-encoding genes (two small subunits, ApS1 and ApS2; and four large subunits, ApL1-ApL4) has been studied. Based on mRNA expression, ApS1 is the main small subunit or catalytic isoform responsible for ADP-Glc PPase activity in all tissues of the plant. Large subunits play a regulatory role, and the data presented define a clear functional distinction among them. ApL1 is the main large subunit in source tissues, whereas ApL3 and, to a lesser extent, ApL4 are the main isoforms present in sink tissues. Thus, in source tissues, ADP-Glc PPase would be finely regulated by the 3-phosphoglycerate/phosphate ratio, whereas in sink tissues, the enzyme would be dependent on the availability of substrates for starch synthesis. Sugar regulation of ADP-Glc PPase genes is restricted to ApL3 and ApL4 in leaves. Sugar induction of ApL3 and ApL4 transcription in leaves allows the establishment of heterotetramers less sensitive to the allosteric effectors, resembling the situation in sink tissues. The results presented on the expression pattern and sugar regulation allow us to propose a gene evolution model for the Arabidopsis ADP-Glc PPase gene family.

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