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Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2004 Nov 15;61(22 Suppl 6):S11-23.

Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A: a clinical update on non-cosmetic uses.

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Movement Disorders Clinic, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.



Clinical experience with botulinum toxin type A for non-cosmetic uses that are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and various other non-cosmetic uses that are not approved by FDA, including some applications that are widely known and others that currently are emerging, is discussed.


FDA-approved indications for botulinum toxin type A (Botox) include the temporary treatment of cervical dystonia (a neuromuscular disorder involving the head and neck), the oculomotor disorders strabismus (improperly aligned eyes) and blepharospasm (involuntary contraction of the eye muscles), and severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating). Other uses of botulinum toxin type A that are widely known but not approved by FDA include spastic disorders associated with injury or disease of the central nervous system including trauma, stroke, multiple sclerosis, or cerebral palsy and focal dystonias affecting the limbs, face, jaw, or vocal cords. Treatment and prevention of chronic headache and chronic musculoskeletal pain are emerging uses for botulinum toxin type A.


Many of the conditions for which botulinum toxin type A has been explored are common and difficult to treat. Temporary improvement in symptoms is associated with botulinum toxin type A injection, and repeat treatment often is required. The drug is well tolerated and has a wide margin of safety.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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