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Ann Pharmacother. 2005 Jan;39(1):68-76. Epub 2004 Dec 8.

Eplerenone: a selective aldosterone receptor antagonist for patients with heart failure.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 6610-7231, USA. bbarnes@kumc.edu

Erratum in

  • Ann Pharmacother. 2005 May;39(5):978.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and clinical use of eplerenone in heart failure (HF).

DATA SOURCES:

English-language MEDLINE searches were performed from 1966 to May 2004. Key words included eplerenone, aldosterone receptor antagonist, heart failure, myocardial infarction, left-ventricular dysfunction, and cost-effectiveness. Additional references were identified from bibliographies of selected articles.

STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION:

Human trials evaluating the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of aldosterone receptor antagonists in HF were evaluated.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

Eplerenone is the first selective aldosterone receptor antagonist. The drug is indicated to improve the survival of stable patients with left-ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <40%) and clinical evidence of HF following acute myocardial infarction. Efficacy and safety in this population have been demonstrated in a large, randomized clinical trial. Eplerenone is associated with severe and sometimes life-threatening hyperkalemia. Patients with reduced renal function and diabetes, as well as those on other drugs that increase potassium levels, are at highest risk. Eplerenone is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system and may interact with drugs that interfere with this system. A major advantage of eplerenone over the nonselective aldosterone receptor antagonist spironolactone is lack of binding to progesterone and androgen receptors, which is associated with drug-induced gynecomastia, breast pain, and impotence.

CONCLUSIONS:

The addition of eplerenone to traditional HF therapy has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients who develop left-ventricular dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. Eplerenone's selectivity reduces sex hormone-related adverse effects. Despite these benefits, the overall cost-effectiveness has yet to be determined.

PMID:
15590870
DOI:
10.1345/aph.1E306
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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