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J Pain Symptom Manage. 2004 Dec;28(6):537-47.

The opportunity for collaborative care provision: the presence of nursing home/hospice collaborations in the U.S. states.

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Department of Community Health, and Center for Gerontology and Health Care Research, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA.


This study estimated the proportion of U.S. nursing homes (NHs) collaborating with Medicare hospices and identified state-level factors associated with this collaboration. Collaboration was classified as present when at least one of a NH's residents dying in July through December, 2000 received hospice. Seventy-six percent of NHs (n=12,174) had hospice collaborations, with proportions ranging from 37% in Wyoming to 96% in Florida. State-level factors associated with greater collaboration included having a lower proportion of persons 65+ residing in rural areas, lower NH occupancy and larger hospices, and Medicaid NH reimbursement which was not case-mixed and was paid directly to NHs (not to hospices) for hospice-enrolled residents. Considering the high amount of estimated NH/hospice collaboration, care provision by both NHs and hospices appears to be a potentially viable approach for providing comprehensive end-of-life care in the majority of U.S. NHs. Findings suggest the rural composition of a state as well as its policies and healthcare market characteristics either foster or discourage NH/hospice collaboration.

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