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J Endotoxin Res. 2004;10(6):439-44.

Deacylation and palmitoylation of lipid A by Salmonellae outer membrane enzymes modulate host signaling through Toll-like receptor 4.

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Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.


The Salmonella typhimurium virulence gene products, PhoP/PhoQ sense host micro-environments to regulate the expression of a lipid A 3-O-deacylase, PagL, and a lipid A palmitoyltransferase, PagP. Therefore, deacylation and/or palmitoylation of lipid A could occur in Salmonellae adapted to host environments. The acylation state of lipid A can alter host recognition and signaling by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, and may play an important role in host defenses against Salmonellae infection. Deacylated lipid A, deacylated and palmitoylated lipid A, palmitoylated lipid A, and unmodified lipid A species were purified, and the activity was examined using cell lines expressing recombinant human or mouse TLR4. Compared with unmodified lipid A, the modified lipid A species are 10-100-fold less active. These results suggest that PagL and PagP modify lipid A to reduce TLR4-signaling as part of Salmonellae adaptation to the host environment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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