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Int J Oncol. 2005 Jan;26(1):241-6.

In vivo and in vitro effect of baicalein on human prostate cancer cells.

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Urology Research Center, Department of Urology, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH 43614, USA.


We investigated the in vitro effects of baicalein and baicalin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and on human prostate tumor cells (DU-145 and PC3) as well as the effect of orally administered baicalein on the growth of DU-145 cells after subcutaneous injection into SCID mice. In vitro effects of baicalein and baicalin treatment on human prostate cancer cell lines DU-145 and PC-3 were assessed by employing cell proliferation (MTS) assay, cytotoxicity (LIVE/DEAD) assay, and TUNEL assay. In vitro anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties of baicalein and baicalin were studied on HUVECs by sprout assay. The effect of orally administered baicalein on tumor growth in SCID mice was studied in four groups (n=10) of animals injected subcutaneously with DU-145 cells and treated daily for 28 days. The control group received only vehicle (carboxymethylcellulose), whereas the other three groups received escalating doses of baicalein (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg per day). Baicalein and baicalin exhibit dose-dependent growth inhibitory effects on human prostate cancer cells and umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Also, treatment by these two flavonoid compounds significantly decreased the average number and length of sprouts formed by the endothelial cell aggregates in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, treatment of mice with baicalein demonstrated a statistically significant tumor volume reduction (p<0.01) when compared to the control. This is the first study demonstrating an in vivo growth inhibitory effect of orally administered baicalein on human prostate tumors in mice.

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