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J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Dec;157(1-2):71-80.

Investigations on four host response factors whose expression is enhanced in X4 SHIV encephalitis.

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Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Marion Merrell Dow Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, 5000 Wahl Hall East, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.


HIV encephalopathy, one of the major complications of HIV infection, involves productive virus replication in macrophages in the brain in association with heightened expression of several host response factors. One or more of these factors are thought to be the cause of the degenerative changes in neurons in the brain. Macaques infected with SIV and SHIV viruses have provided excellent working models for studying mechanisms of the human disease. Although HIV encephalopathy is primarily associated with CCR5-utilizing viruses, our findings have shown that CXCR4-utilizing SHIVs were also capable of causing the syndrome in rhesus macaques. In SHIV-infected macaques, approximately 30% of the animals developed encephalitis. In order to understand the factors leading to end-stage encephalitis, we performed microarray analyses on brains of encephalitic and non-encephalitic-infected macaques, and found pronounced enhancement of expression of interleukin-4, platelet-derived growth factor-B chain, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and CXCL10 in the brains of the encephalitic animals. This review discusses the role of each of these factors in mediating SHIV encephalitis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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