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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Dec 15;37(5):1577-80.

Protease inhibitor and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor concentrations in the genital tract of HIV-1-infected women.

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Schools of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599-7360, USA.


The pharmacokinetics of antiretrovirals (ARVs) in the female genital tract (FGT) are likely to influence vertical and sexual transmission of HIV, the development of viral resistance, and post-exposure prophylaxis regimens. This study is the first to compare ARV concentrations in direct aspirates of cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) and blood plasma (BP). This unique method provides direct assessment of concentrations without the confounding of cervicovaginal lavage dilution. Of 8 ARVs, CVF concentrations ranged from <10% to >100% of BP concentrations. These large differences in CVF penetration suggest that further research into ARV pharmacokinetics and drug efficacy in the FGT is necessary.

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