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Pediatrics. 2004 Dec;114(6):1649-57.

Prophylaxis of early adrenal insufficiency to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a multicenter trial.

Author information

1
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics/Neonatology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, MSC10 5590, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001, USA. kwatterberg@salud.unm.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Infants developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) show decreased cortisol response to adrenocorticotropic hormone. A pilot study of low-dose hydrocortisone therapy for prophylaxis of early adrenal insufficiency showed improved survival without BPD at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, particularly in infants exposed to histologic chorioamnionitis.

METHODS:

Mechanically ventilated infants with birth weights of 500 to 999 g were enrolled into this multicenter, randomized, masked trial between 12 and 48 hours of life. Patients received placebo or hydrocortisone, 1 mg/kg per day for 12 days, then 0.5 mg/kg per day for 3 days. BPD at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age was defined clinically (receiving supplemental oxygen) and physiologically (supplemental oxygen required for O2 saturation > or =90%).

RESULTS:

Patient enrollment was stopped at 360 patients because of an increase in spontaneous gastrointestinal perforation in the hydrocortisone-treated group. Survival without BPD was similar, defined clinically or physiologically, as were mortality, head circumference, and weight at 36 weeks. For patients exposed to histologic chorioamnionitis (n = 149), hydrocortisone treatment significantly decreased mortality and increased survival without BPD, defined clinically or physiologically. After treatment, cortisol values and response to adrenocorticotropic hormone were similar between groups. Hydrocortisone-treated infants receiving indomethacin had more gastrointestinal perforations than placebo-treated infants receiving indomethacin, suggesting an interactive effect.

CONCLUSIONS:

Prophylaxis of early adrenal insufficiency did not improve survival without BPD in the overall study population; however, treatment of chorioamnionitis-exposed infants significantly decreased mortality and improved survival without BPD. Low-dose hydrocortisone therapy did not suppress adrenal function or compromise short-term growth. The combination of indomethacin and hydrocortisone should be avoided.

PMID:
15574629
DOI:
10.1542/peds.2004-1159
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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