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J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004 Dec;128(6):916-24.

Recurrent mitral regurgitation after annuloplasty for functional ischemic mitral regurgitation.

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Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.



We sought to characterize the temporal return of mitral regurgitation after annuloplasty for functional ischemic mitral regurgitation; to identify its predictors, particularly with respect to annuloplasty type; and to determine whether annuloplasty type influences survival.


From April 1985 through November 2002, 585 patients underwent annuloplasty alone for repair of functional ischemic mitral regurgitation, generally with concomitant coronary revascularization (95%). A flexible band (Cosgrove) was used in 68%, a rigid ring (Carpentier) in 21%, and bovine pericardial annuloplasty (Peri-Guard) in 11%. Six hundred seventy-eight postoperative echocardiograms were available in 422 patients to assess the time course of postoperative mitral regurgitation and its correlates. Most echocardiograms were performed early after the operation (median, 8 days); 17% were performed at 1 year or beyond.


During the first 6 months after repair, the proportion of patients with 0 or 1+ mitral regurgitation decreased from 71% to 41%, whereas the proportion with 3+ or 4+ regurgitation increased from 13% to 28% ( P < .0001); the regurgitation grade was stable thereafter. The temporal pattern of development of 3+ or 4+ regurgitation was similar for Cosgrove bands and Carpentier rings (25%) but substantially worse for Peri-Guard annuloplasties (66%). Small annuloplasty size did not influence postoperative regurgitation grade ( P = .2), although Cosgrove bands were used in most patients receiving 26- and 28-mm annuloplasties. Freedom from reoperation was 97% at 5 years. Annuloplasty type was not associated with survival.


Although initial mitral valve replacement would eliminate the risk of postoperative mitral regurgitation, this strategy has been associated with reduced survival. Therefore the development of additional techniques is necessary to achieve more secure repair of functional ischemic mitral regurgitation.

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