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J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004 Dec;128(6):826-33.

Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in Ebstein anomaly: management and outcome.

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Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.



This study was undertaken to review the role of electrophysiology testing and to determine the early and late results of medical and surgical management of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in Ebstein anomaly.


We reviewed 130 patients between 1990 and 2001 with Ebstein anomaly and history of tachyarrhythmia with a median age of 25 years (mean age 27.5 years); 106 underwent electrophysiologic testing and 24 had documented atrial flutter or fibrillation. We excluded 21 patients: negative results of testing (n = 18), ventricular tachycardia (n = 2), and junctional tachycardia (n = 1). The remaining 109 patients had more than one mechanism: accessory pathway-mediated tachycardia (n = 49), atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (n = 10), and atrial flutter/fibrillation (n = 70).


Eighty-three patients underwent at least one arrhythmia procedure combined with surgery for Ebstein anomaly. Early mortality was 4.8%. Forty-one patients underwent surgical ablation of an accessory pathway without recurrent accessory pathway-mediated tachycardia at a mean follow-up of 48 months. Seven patients underwent surgical perinodal cryoablation for atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia without recurrence at a mean follow-up of 57 months. Forty-eight patients underwent surgical intervention for atrial flutter or fibrillation (right-sided maze procedure, n = 38, and cryoablation of the atrial isthmus, n = 10). Freedom from recurrent atrial flutter or fibrillation was 75% at a mean follow-up of 34 months.


Concomitant arrhythmia procedures can be performed without increase in early mortality and should be added to Ebstein repairs for all patients who have supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Surgical procedures for accessory pathway-mediated tachycardia and atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia give excellent (100%) freedom from recurrence of those arrhythmias. Surgical intervention for atrial flutter/fibrillation yields freedom from late recurrence in 75% of cases.

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