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Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005 Jan;15(1):23-30.

Chlorpromazine and loxapine reduce interleukin-1beta and interleukin-2 release by rat mixed glial and microglial cell cultures.

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1
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Silesia, 18 Medykow Street, 40-752 Katowice, Poland. lobuzek@rubikon.pl

Abstract

The cytokines IL-1beta and IL-2 are released from activated glial cells in the central nervous system and they are able to enhance catecholaminergic neurotransmission. There is no data concerning influence of antipsychotics on glial cell activity. Antipsychotics reaching the brain act not only on neurons but probably also on glial cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorpromazine and loxapine on release of IL-1beta and IL-2 by mixed glial and microglial cell cultures. Chlorpromazine in concentrations 2 and 20 muM, and loxapine 0.2, 2 and 20 microM reduced IL-1beta secretion by LPS-activated mixed glia cultures after 1 and 3 days of exposure. Chlorpromazine in concentrations of 0.2, 2 and 20 microM reduced the IL-2 secretion in mixed glial cultures after 3 days of exposure. Loxapine in concentrations of 0.2, 2 and 20 microM reduced IL-2 secretion in mixed glia cultures after 1 and 3 days of exposure, and additionally loxapine decreased IL-1beta and IL-2 secretion in LPS-induced microglia cultures in concentrations of 2, 10 and 20 muM. Quinpirole-a D2 dopaminergic agonist increased LPS-induced IL-1beta and IL-2 secretion in mixed glia cultures only in the highest dose of 20 microM. These findings suggest the absence of functional dopamine receptors on cortical microglial cells. Mixed glia cultures deprived of microglia (by shaking and incubating with L-leucine methyl ester) did not release IL-1beta and IL-2. This observation suggests that microglia can be a source of assessed cytokines. Results of the present study support the view that antipsychotics act not only on neurons but also on glial cells. However, the clinical significance of these observations still remains unclear.

PMID:
15572270
DOI:
10.1016/j.euroneuro.2004.04.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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