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Crit Care. 2004 Dec;8(6):478-84. Epub 2004 Jun 3.

Clinical review: vascular access for fluid infusion in children.

Author information

1
Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. Nikolaus_Haas@health.qld.gov.au <Nikolaus_Haas@health.qld.gov.au>

Abstract

The current literature on venous access in infants and children for acute intravascular access in the routine situation and in emergency or intensive care settings is reviewed. The various techniques for facilitating venous cannulation, such as application of local warmth, transillumination techniques and epidermal nitroglycerine, are described. Preferred sites for central venous access in infants and children are the external and internal jugular veins, the subclavian and axillary veins, and the femoral vein. The femoral venous cannulation appears to be the most safe and reliable technique in children of all ages, with a high success and low complication rates. Evidence from the reviewed literature strongly supports the use of real-time ultrasound techniques for venous cannulation in infants and children. Additionally, in emergency situations the intraosseous access has almost completely replaced saphenous cutdown procedures in children and has decreased the need for immediate central venous access.

PMID:
15566619
PMCID:
PMC1065040
DOI:
10.1186/cc2880
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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