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Crit Care. 2004 Dec;8(6):R443-50. Epub 2004 Oct 19.

G-CSF and IL-8 for early diagnosis of sepsis in neonates and critically ill children - safety and cost effectiveness of a new laboratory prediction model: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN91123847].

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Department of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland. <>



Bacterial infection represents a serious risk in neonates and critically ill paediatric patients. Current clinical practice is characterized by frequent antibiotic treatment despite low incidence of true infection. However, some patients escape early diagnosis and progress to septic shock. Many new markers, including cytokines, have been suggested to improve decision making, but the clinical efficacy of these techniques remains uncertain. Therefore, we will test the clinical efficacy of a previously validated diagnostic strategy to reduce antibiotic usage and nosocomial infection related morbidity.


All patients admitted to the multidisciplinary neonatal and paediatric intensive care unit of a university children's hospital will be included. Patients will be allocated either to routine sepsis work up or to the intervention strategy with additional cytokine measurements. Physicians will be requested to estimate the pre-test probability of sepsis and pneumonia at initial suspicion. In the treatment arm, physicians will receive raw cytokine results, the likelihood ratio and the updated post-test probability. A high post-test probability will suggest that immediate initiation of antibiotic treatment is appropriate, whereas a low post-test probability will be supportive of watchful waiting or discontinuing prophylactic empirical therapy. Physicians may overrule the suggestions resulting from the post-test probability.


This trial will ascertain the clinical efficacy of introducing new diagnostic strategies consisting of pre-test probability estimate, novel laboratory markers, and computer-generated post-test probability in infectious disease work up in critically ill newborns and children.

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