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J Cell Biochem. 2005 Feb 1;94(2):279-97.

Survey of genetically engineered mouse models for prostate cancer: analyzing the molecular basis of prostate cancer development, progression, and metastasis.

Author information

1
Department of Urologic Surgery, the Vanderbilt Prostate Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-2765, USA. susan.kasper@vanderbilt.edu

Abstract

Genetically engineered mouse models have been generated to study the molecular basis of prostate cancer (PCa) development, progression, and metastasis. Selection of a prostate-specific promoter, such as the probasin (PB) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) promoters, is critical for generating sufficient levels of transgene expression to elicit a phenotypic response. To date, target genes have included growth factors, cell cycle regulators, pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, steroid hormone and growth factor receptors, oncogenes, tumor suppressors, and homeobox genes. The experimental approaches used to generate these mouse models include overexpression of the transgene, knock-out/knock-in of transgene expression and conditional regulation of expression using Cre/lox technology. This review summarizes the promoters, which have been utilized to create genetically engineered mouse models for PCa. Furthermore, the effects of gene disruption on promoting low- and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGPIN and HGPIN, respectively), locally invasive carcinoma and metastatic lesions will be discussed. To date, the PB-Cre4 x PTENloxp/loxp model appears to be the only model that represents the entire continuum of prostate adenocarcinoma development, tumor progression, and metastasis, although models that develop prostatic neuroendocrine (NE) cancer can be generated by disrupting one genetic event. Indeed, analysis of bigenic mouse models indicates that two genetic events are generally required for progression from HGPIN to locally invasive adenocarcinoma and that two to five genetic events can promote metastasis to distant sites. Studying the effects of genetic perturbation on PCa biology will increase our understanding of the disease process and potentially provide targets for developing novel therapeutic approaches.

PMID:
15565647
DOI:
10.1002/jcb.20339
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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