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Diabetes. 2004 Dec;53(12):3300-6.

Calsquestrin 1 (CASQ1) gene polymorphisms under chromosome 1q21 linkage peak are associated with type 2 diabetes in Northern European Caucasians.

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Department of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.


Genome-wide scans in multiple populations have identified chromosome 1q21-q24 as one susceptibility region for type 2 diabetes. To map the susceptibility genes, we first placed a dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map across the linked region. We identified two SNPs that showed strong associations, and both mapped to within intron 2 of the calsequestrin 1 (CASQ1) gene. We tested the hypothesis that sequence variation in or near CASQ1 contributed to type 2 diabetes susceptibility in Northern European Caucasians by identifying additional SNPs from the public database and by screening the CASQ1 gene for additional variation. In addition to 15 known SNPs in this region, we found 8 new SNPs, 3 of which were in exons. A single rare nonsynonymous SNP in exon 11 (A348V) was not associated with type 2 diabetes. The associated SNPs were localized to the region between -1,404 in the 5' flanking region and 2,949 in intron 2 (P = 0.002 to P = 0.034). No SNP 3' to intron 2, including the adjacent gene PEA15, showed an association. The strongest associations were restricted to individuals of Northern European ancestry ascertained in Utah. A six-marker haplotype was also associated with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.008), but neither transmission disequilibrium test nor family-based association studies were significant for the most strongly associated SNP in intron 2 (SNP CASQ2312). An independent association of SNPs in introns 2 and 4 with type 2 diabetes is reported in Amish families with linkage to chromosome 1q21-q24. Our findings suggest that noncoding SNPs in CASQ1 alter diabetes susceptibility, either by a direct effect on CASQ1 gene expression or perhaps by regulating a nearby gene such as PEA15.

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