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J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 18;280(7):5740-9. Epub 2004 Nov 23.

NDPK2 as a signal transducer in the phytochrome-mediated light signaling.

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Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0304, USA.


Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (NDPK) 2 in Arabidopsis has been identified as a phytochrome-interacting protein by using the C-terminal domain of phytochrome A (PhyA) as the bait in yeast two-hybrid screening. The far-red light-absorbing form of phytochrome (Pfr) A stimulates NDPK2 gamma-phosphate exchange activity in vitro. To better understand the multiple functions of NDPK and its role in phytochrome-mediated signaling, we characterized the interaction between phytochrome and NDPK2. Domain studies revealed that PER-ARNT-SIM domain A in the C-terminal domain of phytochrome is the binding site for NDPK2. Additionally, phytochrome recognizes both the NDPK2 C-terminal fragment and the NDPK2 hexameric structure to fulfill its binding. To illustrate the mechanism of how the Pfr form of phytochrome stimulates NDPK2, His-197-surrounding residue mutants were made and tested. Results suggested that the H-bonding with His-197 inside the nucleotide-binding pocket is critical for NDPK2 functioning. The pH dependence profiles of NDPK2 indicated that mutants with different activities from the wild type have different pK(a) values of His-197 and that NDPK2 hyperactive mutants possess lower pK(a) values. Because a lower pK(a) value of His-197 accelerates NDPK2 autophosphorylation and the phospho-transfer between the phosphorylated NDPK2 and its kinase substrate, we concluded that the Pfr form of phytochrome stimulates NDPK2 by lowering the pK(a) value of His-197.

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