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J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc. 2004 Aug;11(3):326-31.

LUCY: a 3-D pelvic model for surgical simulation.

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  • 1Stanford University Medical Media and Information Technologies, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5466, USA.


Development of 3-D models of human anatomy for use in virtual reality simulators is anticipated to enhance surgical training. These models may be a valuable resource for gaining mastery of minimal-access procedures. The pelvis portion (hip to upper-thigh) of a 32-year-old female cadaver was frozen and sectioned axially in approximately 2-mm increments as the first step in producing an accurately representative 3-D model of the human female pelvis. Photographic exposures of the entire series of 95 sections were then converted to digital format. Adobe PhotoShop masks for each structure were created and converted into wire-frame and surface-textured models; this aggregate model set was named "LUCY." To date, 3-D representations of 40 pelvic structures (over 2200 individual masks) have been modeled In conjunction with haptic technology, these virtual anatomic models will enable users to practice fundamental surgical manipulations and procedures such as tubal ligation and ovariectomy. The deployment of surgical-simulation models such as LUCY may facilitate technical-performance aspects of surgical training, particularly those associated with minimal-access procedures. Manipulations and procedures can be practiced over the Internet, providing a host of flexible options to enhance the surgical curricula.

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