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Med J Malaysia. 2004 Jun;59(2):258-67.

Reliability and validity of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) among urological patients: a Malaysian study.

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Health Research Development Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur.


To validate the English version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in a sample of Malaysia patients with and without urinary symptoms. Validity and reliability were studied in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and patients without LUTS. Reliability was evaluated using the test-retest method and internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Sensitivity to change was expressed as the effect size in the pre-intervention versus post-intervention score in additional patients with LUTS who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Internal consistency was excellent. A high degree of internal consistency was observed for each of the 40 items with Cronbach's alpha value = 0.38 to 0.89 while the Cronbach's alpha for the total scores was 0.86. Test-retest correlation coefficients for the 40 items score were highly significant. Intraclass correlation coefficient was high (ICC=0.39 to 0.89). A high degree of sensitivity and specificity to the effects of treatment was observed. A high degree of significant level between baseline and post-treatment scores was observed across nearly half of the items in surgical group but not in the non-LUTS group (control subjects). The STAI is reliable, valid and sensitive to clinical change in a sample of Malaysian patients with and without urinary symptoms.

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