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J Basic Microbiol. 2004;44(6):430-44.

Diversity and abundance of Bacteria and Archaea in the Bor Khlueng Hot Spring in Thailand.

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BIOTEC Center Laboratory, Thailand Science Park, 113 Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.


The prokaryotic diversity in the Bor Khlueng hot spring in Ratchaburi province, Thailand was investigated by a culture-independent molecular approach. This hydrothermal pool is located in the central part of Thailand and contains sulfide-rich mineral water that is believed to relieve muscle ache and pain. The water flow year-round with temperature ranging between 50-57 degrees C. Community DNA was extracted directly from sediment samples by coring to depth of approximately 20-30 cm. Small-subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNA) were amplified by PCR using primers specific for the domains Archaea and Bacteria. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. For the bacterial rDNA clone library, 200 clones were randomly selected for further analyses. After restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of rDNA clones and exclusion of chimeric sequences 36 phylotypes were obtained. The Bor Khlueng phylotypes spanned a wide range within the domain Bacteria, occupying eleven major lineages (phyla). Almost a quarter (23%) of the clones were classified as Acidobacteria. The other clones were grouped into the Bacteriodetes (19%), Nitrospirae (13%), Proteobacteria (12%), Deinococcus-Thermus lineage (11%), planctomycetes (6%), and Verrucomicrobia (5%). The four remaining phyla, 5% each, were assigned to Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and the candidate division "OP10". For the archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequence library, 25 distinct phylotypes were obtained, 17 clones were found to be associated with Crenarahaeota and 8 clones were associated with Euryarachaeota. The findings of the molecular survey of this so far not investigated site showed that Bor Khlueng hot spring is a potential rich source of unique bacterial and archaeal species. The great majority ( approximately 80%) of the prokaryotic sequences detected in Bor Khlueng were unknown.

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