Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Nov 30;101(48):16941-6. Epub 2004 Nov 18.

The organization of orientation and spatial frequency in primary visual cortex.

Author information

Laboratory of Applied Mathematics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA.


Many studies have demonstrated that the primary visual cortex contains multiple functional maps of visual properties (e.g., ocular dominance, orientation preference, and spatial-frequency preference), but as yet no consistent picture has emerged as to how these maps are related to one another. Three divergent, prior optical-imaging studies of spatial frequency are reanalyzed and critiqued in this article. Evidence is presented that a nonstimulus-specific response biased the interpretation of results in previous studies. In addition to reexamining four prior cat experiments, we carried out one new experiment. Through the use of different methods and a careful removal of the nonspecific response, we are led in all instances to a unique view of cortical organization for spatial-frequency preference. In particular, we find little apparent evidence for a columnar organization for spatial frequency. The response recorded by each image pixel may be viewed as arising from an admixture of low- and high-spatial-frequency populations. For most pixels, the ratio of these populations is 1:1.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center