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JAMA. 2004 Nov 17;292(19):2372-8.

Ozone and short-term mortality in 95 US urban communities, 1987-2000.

Author information

1
School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Conn 06511, USA. michelle.bell@yale.edu

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Ozone has been associated with various adverse health effects, including increased rates of hospital admissions and exacerbation of respiratory illnesses. Although numerous time-series studies have estimated associations between day-to-day variation in ozone levels and mortality counts, results have been inconclusive.

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate whether short-term (daily and weekly) exposure to ambient ozone is associated with mortality in the United States.

DESIGN AND SETTING:

Using analytical methods and databases developed for the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study, we estimated a national average relative rate of mortality associated with short-term exposure to ambient ozone for 95 large US urban communities from 1987-2000. We used distributed-lag models for estimating community-specific relative rates of mortality adjusted for time-varying confounders (particulate matter, weather, seasonality, and long-term trends) and hierarchical models for combining relative rates across communities to estimate a national average relative rate, taking into account spatial heterogeneity.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

Daily counts of total non-injury-related mortality and cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in 95 large US communities during a 14-year period.

RESULTS:

A 10-ppb increase in the previous week's ozone was associated with a 0.52% increase in daily mortality (95% posterior interval [PI], 0.27%-0.77%) and a 0.64% increase in cardiovascular and respiratory mortality (95% PI, 0.31%-0.98%). Effect estimates for aggregate ozone during the previous week were larger than for models considering only a single day's exposure. Results were robust to adjustment for particulate matter, weather, seasonality, and long-term trends.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results indicate a statistically significant association between short-term changes in ozone and mortality on average for 95 large US urban communities, which include about 40% of the total US population. The findings indicate that this widespread pollutant adversely affects public health.

PMID:
15547165
PMCID:
PMC3546819
DOI:
10.1001/jama.292.19.2372
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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