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Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2004 Dec;40(3):281-92.

Toxicity evaluation of a beta-galactosidase preparation produced by Penicillium multicolor.

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Keller and Heckman LLP, 1001 G Street, Washington, DC 20001, USA.


Tilactase is a beta-galactosidase enzyme preparation having lactase activity produced from the fungus Penicillium multicolor. The safety of tilactase was investigated in rats, dogs, and rabbits. Adult and juvenile rats administered 0, 500, 1000, or 4000 mg/kg bw/day of the enzyme preparation by gavage for 35 days, and dogs administered 0, 200, 500, or 1000 mg/kg bw/day in capsules for 30 days, exhibited no significant dose-related changes in body weights, feed consumption, organ weights, urinalysis, hematological profiles, clinical chemistry, or histopathological profiles. Rats receiving the same doses for 6 months also exhibited no dose-related effects, except for a small increase in the weight of the large intestine, an effect considered to be a physiological reaction to passage of a large amount of a non-absorbable substance. The no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 4000 mg/kg bw/day for rats and 1000 mg/kg bw/day for dogs. In three separate studies to examine reproductive and developmental toxicity, rats received 0, 250, 1000 or 4000 mg/kg bw/day by gavage up to the 7th day of pregnancy, during days 7-17 of pregnancy, and from day 17 of pregnancy to 21 days after delivery. There were no treatment-related effects on the dams, gestation period, numbers of implantations, parturition rates, sex ratios, or survival of offspring in any of the studies. No treatment-related external, internal, or skeletal abnormalities were observed in fetuses from any of the three studies. The NOAEL was 4000 mg/kg bw/day. In addition to the three rat studies, rabbits received 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg bw/day by gavage from the 6th to 18th day of pregnancy. No treatment-related changes were observed in the dams, or fertility indices; nor were there any treatment-related fetal abnormalities. The NOAEL was 1000 mg/kg bw/day. When viable P. multicolor spores were injected into the tail veins of mice, no deaths occured, no fungal cells were observed in various organs, and histopathology showed only focal necrosis in the liver of some of the animals, including the controls. Similar effects were observed when spores were administered to mice in a single dose by gavage. The particular strain of P. multicolor used to prepare tilactase is not pathogenic.

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