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Health Psychol. 2004 Nov;23(6):612-21.

Latent growth curve analyses of peer and parent influences on smoking progression among early adolescents.

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Prevention Research Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-7510, USA.


Social influences on smoking uptake were examined in latent growth curve analyses of data from 1,320 youths assessed 5 times during 6th to 9th grade. Initial smoking stage predicted increases in number of friends who smoked, indicating selection; however, initial number of friends who smoked did not predict smoking stage progression, indicating no significant effect of socialization. Associations over time among smoking stage progression, affiliation with friends who smoke, and parenting behaviors were significant, suggesting dynamic, reciprocal relationships. Parental involvement, monitoring, and expectations provided direct protective effects against smoking progression as well as indirect effects, by limiting increases in number of friends who smoke. These results are consistent with the peer selection hypothesis, confirm the powerful association over time of social influences with smoking, and provide the first evidence that parenting behavior may protect against smoking progression by limiting increases in number of friends who smoke.

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